Founder of Indian National Congress: A Tale of Vision and Unity

The Indian National Congress (INC) stands as one of the most influential political entities in India’s history, playing a pivotal role in the country’s struggle for independence and subsequent political development. Espacioapk The formation of the INC marked the beginning of a new chapter in Indian history, one characterized by collective efforts toward self-governance and social reform. To appreciate the foundation of modern India, one must first understand the INC’s origins and its founder’s vision Founder of Indian National Congress.

Allan Octavian Hume was the founder.

Hume’s deep understanding of the Indian socio-political landscape and his desire to create a platform for educated Indians to voice their concerns and aspirations motivated him to establish the Congress. Indian leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji and Dinshaw Wacha complemented his efforts, significantly shaping the early direction of the Congress.

Allan Octavian Hume is the visionary behind INC.

Allan Octavian Hume was born on June 6, 1829, in England. In 1849, he joined the Indian Civil Service and worked in various capacities across the Indian subcontinent. During his tenure, Hume developed a profound respect for Indian culture and a keen understanding of the issues facing the Indian populace. His progressive views and dedication to reform marked his career.

Hume’s disillusionment with the British administration’s disregard for Indian welfare led him to champion the cause of Indian self-governance. He believed that a representative body was essential for fostering dialogue between the British authorities and Indian society. His foresight and commitment to inclusive political dialogue laid the groundwork for the formation of the Indian National Congress.

The Indian National Congress was founded.

Bombay (now Mumbai) hosted the first session of the Indian National Congress from December 28 to 31, 1885. 72 delegates, representing various regions and communities across India, attended the meeting. Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee, a prominent barrister from Bengal and the first president of the INC, chaired this inaugural session.

During this session, the Congress clearly outlined its objectives. These included promoting friendly relations among nationalist political workers from different parts of the country, developing and consolidating the sentiments of national unity irrespective of caste, religion, or province, and articulating and presenting popular demands before the British government.

Early challenges and achievements

In its nascent years, the Indian National Congress faced numerous challenges. The British authorities were wary of the Congress and its potential to stir political dissent. Some Indian leaders also doubted the effectiveness of a political body under the leadership of a former British civil servant. However, Hume’s dedication and the growing realization among Indians of the need for a unified platform helped overcome these initial hurdles.

The Congress quickly became a significant voice for political and social reform in India. It advocated for the inclusion of Indians in the legislative process, fair treatment under British law, and economic reforms to alleviate the hardships faced by Indian farmers and workers. The annual sessions of the INC became a forum for discussing pressing issues and formulating strategies for collective action Founder of Indian National Congress.

Dadabhai Naoroji: The Grand Old Man of India

Among the early leaders of the Indian National Congress, Dadabhai Naoroji stands out for his unwavering commitment to the cause of Indian self-rule. Known as the “Grand Old Man of India,” Naoroji was a prominent figure in the Congress and played a crucial role in shaping its policies and direction. As the first Indian elected to the British Parliament, he tirelessly championed Indian interests and exposed the British’s economic exploitation of India.

Naoroji’s contributions to the Congress were instrumental in its growth and effectiveness. His economic analysis, particularly his theory of the “Drain of Wealth,” highlighted the financial exploitation of India under British rule and provided a strong foundation for the Congress’s demands for economic justice.

The Moderates and Extremists

The early years of the Indian National Congress were characterized by a moderate approach, focusing on petitions, resolutions, and dialogue with the British authorities. Leaders such as Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Pherozeshah Mehta championed this approach. However, by the turn of the 20th century, a more radical faction emerged within the Congress, advocating for direct action and self-reliance. Leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Lala Lajpat Rai, known as the Lal-Bal-Pal trio, pushed for a more assertive stance against British rule.

The differences between the moderates and extremists led to a split in the Congress in 1907, but this internal conflict also demonstrated the organization’s evolving nature and its capacity to accommodate diverse perspectives. The eventual reconciliation between these factions strengthened the Congress and broadened its appeal.

The Legacy of the Early Congress

The early years of the Indian National Congress laid a strong foundation for the Indian independence movement. The Congress’s commitment to inclusive representation, social justice, and political reform resonated with a broad spectrum of Indian society. Its ability to adapt to changing political dynamics and incorporate diverse viewpoints made it a formidable force in the struggle for independence.

The early Congress’s legacy is also evident in its role in nurturing future independence movement leaders. Figures like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel emerged from the Congress ranks, bringing with them new strategies and visions for achieving independence.


The founding of the Indian National Congress by Allan Octavian Hume was a seminal event in Indian history. Hume’s vision for a platform where Indians could collectively voice their demands and aspirations set the stage for a united struggle against colonial rule. Significant achievements and challenges marked the early years of the Congress, but its commitment to national unity and political reform laid the groundwork for India’s eventual independence. As we reflect on the origins of the INC, we honor the legacy of its founders and early leaders, who dedicated themselves to the cause of a free and just India Founder of Indian National Congress.

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